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Wifredo Lam

Wifredo Oscar de la Concepción Lam y Castilla was born December 8, 1902, in Sagua la Grande, Cuba. In 1916, his family moved to Havana, where he attended the Escuela de Bellas Artes. During the early 1920s, he exhibited at the Salón de la Asociación de Pintores y Escultores in Havana. In 1923, Lam moved to Madrid, where he studied at the studio of Fernando Alvarez de Sotomayor, the Director of the Museo del Prado (and a teacher of Salvador Dalí). In 1929, Lam married Eva Piriz, who died of tuberculosis two years later, as did their young son. This tragic event may have contributed to the dark and brooding appearance of much of Lam’s later work.
In the early 1930s, the effects of Surrealism were evident in Lam’s work, as was the influence of Henri Matisse and possibly Joaquín Torres-García. In 1936, a traveling exhibition of the work of Pablo Picasso shown in Barcelona, Bilbao, and Madrid proved inspirational to Lam both artistically and politically. He moved to Paris in 1938, where Picasso took him under his wing and encouraged his interest in African art and primitive masks. During that year, he also traveled to Mexico, where he stayed with Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera. Lam’s own multicultural heritage (as the son of a Chinese father and a mother of mixed African, Indian, and European descent) and his involvement with Santería, a religion rooted in African culture, would soon become integral to his work. By the late 1930s, Lam was associated with the Surrealists. He had his first solo show at the Galerie Pierre Loeb in Paris in 1939, and his work was exhibited with Picasso’s at the Perls Galleries, New York.
Between 1942 and 1950, the artist exhibited regularly at the Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York. In 1946, after a four-month stay in Haiti, Lam returned to France via New York. In 1948, he met Asger Jorn, who was a friend for many years. He traveled extensively until 1952, then settled for three years in Paris before resuming his travels again in 1955. In 1960, Lam established a studio in Albisola Mare, on the Italian coast. The winter of that year he married Swedish painter Lou Laurin, with whom he would have three sons. In 1964, he received the Guggenheim International Award, and in 1966–67 there were multiple retrospectives of Lam’s work at the Kunsthalle Basel; the Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover; the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam; the Moderna Museet, Stockholm; and the Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels. Lam died September 11, 1982, in Paris.

Individual exhbitions:
1923
Sagua la Grande (Cuba), La Sociedad-Círculo de Cultura y Recreos.
1928
Madrid, Galería Vilches.
1932
León (Espagne), Círculo de Arte.
1939
Paris, Galerie Pierre, Wifredo Lam, peintures.
New York, Perls Galleries, Drawings by Picasso and Gouaches by Wifredo Lam.
1942
New York, Pierre Matisse Gallery, Lam Paintings.
1944
New York, Pierre Matisse Gallery, Lam Paintings.
1945
New York, Pierre Matisse Gallery, Lam, Recent Paintings.
1946
Paris, Galerie Pierre, Wifredo Lam.
Port-au-Prince, Centre d’Art, 25e exposition du Centre d’Art, Lam.
La Havane, Lyceum, Lam.
Londres, The London Gallery Bookshop, The Cuban Painter Wifredo Lam, Twenty Drawings.
1948
New York, Pierre Matisse Gallery, Wifredo Lam.
1950
New York, Pierre Matisse Gallery, Lam.
La Havane, Parque Central, Lam, obras recientes 1950.
1951
La Havane, Galería Sociedad Nuestro Tiempo, Lam y nuestro tiempo, París 1938-1951 La Habana.
1952
Londres, Institute of Contemporary Art, Wifredo Lam.
1953
Paris, Galerie Maeght, Lam, peintures récentes.
1955
La Havane, Universidad de La Habana, Pabellón de Ciencias Sociales, Wifredo Lam.
Caracas, Museo de Bellas Artes, Lam.
Caracas, Instituto Venezolano-Francés, Wifredo Lam.
Malmö (Suède), Galerie Colibri, Wifredo Lam.
1956
Santa Clara (Cuba), Universidad de Santa Clara.
1957
Maracaibo (Venezuela), Centro de Bellas Artes, Wifredo Lam, oleos 37-39, obras recientes 56-57, gouaches, pasteles, dibujos, litografías, grabados, collages.
Paris, Galerie Cahiers d’art, Exposition de dessins de Wifredo Lam.
1959
Milan, Galleria Pagani del Grattacielo, Opere recenti di Lam.
1960
Milan, Galleria Pagani del Grattacielo, présentation de Cartella di litografie di Lam
Milan, Galleria del Disegno, Wifredo Lam, pastelli e guaches 1953-60.
1961
Notre-Dame, (États-Unis), University of Notre-Dame Art Gallery, Wifredo Lam.
Rome, Galleria dell’Obelisco, Wifredo Lam.
Paris, Galerie La Cour d’Ingres, Wifredo Lam.
Venise, Galleria il Canale.
1962
Genève, Galerie D. Benador, Wifredo Lam.
La Havane, Galería de La Habana, Cienfuegos, Santiago de Cuba, Wifredo Lam, oleos, temperas y dibujos.
Milan, Galleria L’Annunciata, Lam, dipinti, pastelli, acqueforti, presentation of the series Images.
New York, Albert Loeb Gallery, Lam, Paintings from 1938 to 1962.
1963
Washington DC, Pyramid Galleries, Wifredo Lam: A Decade 1942-1952, Oils, Gouaches, Drawings, Graphics.
Genève, Galerie Jan Krugier, Wifredo Lam. Catalogue Suites, no. 3.
La Havane, Biblioteca Nacional José Martí / Cienfuegos / Camagüey / Matanzas, Wifredo Lam, aguafuertes.
Albissola (Italie), Galleria Pescetto-Arte Contemporanea, Wifredo Lam, œuvres gravées: eaux-fortes et lithographies 1954-1963.
Spoleto (Italie), Palazzo Callicola, Salle Wifredo Lam, Exposizione Latino-americana.
1964
Turin, Galleria Notizie, Lam.
Caracas, Museo de Bellas Artes, Aguafuertes de Lam.
1966
La Havane, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Lam, oleos y aguafuertes.
Malmö (Suède), Galerie Andersen, Wifredo Lam.
Paris, Galerie Christine Aubry, Wifredo Lam: gouaches, pastels, dessins. Présentation du Théâtre et les Dieux d’Antonin Artaud.
Milan, Galleria Milano. Présentation d’Apostroph’ Apocalypse de Gherasim Luca.
1966-1967
Bâle, Kunsthalle, Wifredo Lam Malerei, Vic Gentils Bildhauerei. / Hannovre, Kestner-Gesellschaft, / Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum, / Stockholm, Moderna Museet, / Bruxelles, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Wifredo Lam.
1967
Paris, Galerie Albert Loeb, Pastels récents, présentation de L’Antichambre de la Nature d’Alain Jouffroy.
Montréal, Montreal’s School of Fine Arts, Wifredo Lam Etchings.
1968
Paris, Galerie Villand et Galanis, Wifredo Lam, œuvres de 1962 à 1968.
Lodz (Pologne), Muzeum Sztuki, Wifredo Lam.
1969
Milan, Galleria Bergamini, Wifredo Lam.
Bruxelles, Galerie Maia, Wifredo Lam, recent drawings and pastels.
Franckfort, Frankfurter Kunstkabinett Hanna Bekker Vom Rath, Wifredo Lam, Œlbilder, Zeichnungen, Druckgraphik.
New York, Cisneros Gallery, Lam on Paper.
1970
Fresnes (France), MJC de Fresnes, Wifredo Lam, lithographies, eaux-fortes, gouaches.
Milan, Galleria Il Giorno, Wifredo Lam, grafica.
Milan, Centro di Grafica Levi, Wifredo Lam, pastelli.
Genève, Galerie Jan Krugier, Wifredo Lam.
Côme (Italie), Galleria Il Salotto, Wifredo Lam: Opere grafiche.
Milan, Galleria Schubert, Wifredo Lam: Oli, pastelli, ceramica, litografie, incisioni dal 1943-1970.
Milan, Galleria Arte Borgogna, Wifredo Lam.
Stockholm, Galleri Heland, Wifredo Lam: Grafik, porslin.
Milan, Galleria d’Arte Cortina, La Porcellana di Wifredo Lam.
Rome, Galleria Levi, Wifredo Lam, oli e pastelli.
1970-1971
Londres, New York, Zurich, Gimpel Gallery, Wifredo Lam.
1971
Paris, Galerie Albert Loeb, Wifredo Lam, œuvres anciennes.
Castellanza (Italie), Galleria d’Arte Del Barba, W. Lam.
Milan, Galleria Levi Arte Moderna, Wifredo Lam, Visibile Invisibile.
1972
Paris, Galerie Albert Loeb, Wifredo Lam, œuvres de 1940-1950.
Paris, Galerie Tronche, Lam, sculptures.
1973
Milan, Galleria Angolare, Wifredo Lam.
Rome, Galleria Levi.
1974
Anvers (Belgique), Galerie de Zwarte Panter, Lam.
Paris, Galerie Albert Loeb, Wifredo Lam, œuvres de 1938 à 1946, En hommage à Pierre Loeb.
Savone (Italie), Galleria Sanmichele, Wifredo Lam.
Stockholm, Galerie A. H. Grafik, Wifredo Lam, Pleni Luna
Yougoslavie, divers Instituts Culturels Yougoslaves, Le Feu Vert.
Washington DC, Pyramid Galleries.
1974-1975
Paris, Galerie La Cour d’Ingres, Wifredo Lam.
1975
Malmö (Suède), Galerie Börjeson.
Rome, Ciak Galleria d’Arte, Grafica di Wifredo Lam.
Rome, Delta International Art Center, Lam, pastelli e opere grafiche di Wifredo Oscar de la Concepción Lam y Castilla.
Albissola (Italie), Museo Della Ceramica, Wifredo Lam ceramiche, acqueforti, lithografie.
Florence, Galleria della Grafica Palazzo Vecchio, Wifredo Lam.
Milan, Galleria Zarathustra, Lam.
Beyrouth, Delta International Art Center.
Bologne (Italie), Santerno Arte, Le Opere ceramiche di Wifredo Lam.
Milan, Galleria Nuovo Sagittario, Wifredo Lam: opere scelte.
Paris, Galerie Arenthon, Hommage à Wifredo Lam graveur.
1976
Rome, Galleria d’Arte La Borgognona, Wifredo Lam.
Paris, Galerie Albert Loeb, présentation de Le nouveau Nouveau monde de Lam d’Alain Joufroy et de Orsa Maggiore de Joyce Mansour.
Paris, Galerie La Cour d’Ingres, Wifredo Lam: œuvres importantes 1950-1960.
Paris, Galerie Le Point Cardinal, Wifredo Lam, gouaches, pastels, présentation de Contre une maison sèche de René Char.
Albissola (Italie), Studio Circolo d’Arte il Forno, Wifredo Lam, ceramiche, bronzi, serigrafie a gran Fuoco.
Caracas, Estudio Actual, Centro de Arte Contemporáneo, Wifredo Lam.
Barcelone, Galería Joan Prats, Wifredo Lam: olis, aiguades i obra gravada.
1977
Alicante (Espagne), Galería Italia, Wifredo Lam.
La Havane, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Litografías 1973-1976, Libros, Wifredo Lam.
Helsinki, Galerie Artek, Wifredo Lam.
1978
Bruxelles, Prospect Art Gallery, Wifredo Lam, sculptures.
Turin, Galleria Gissi, Lam.
Charlottenlund (Danmark), Ordrupgaard/ Høvikkoden (Norvège), Sonja Henie, Niels Onstad Foundation, Wifredo Lam.
Montignoso (Italie), Presenze immagini, omaggio a Wifredo Lam.
1978-1979
Mexico, Museo de Arte Moderno, Bosque de Chapultepec, Wifredo Lam.
1979
Paris, Musée national d’Art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Wifredo Lam, La Jungle.
La Spezia (Italie), Galleria Minotauro, Wifredo Lam.
1979-1980
Paris, Artcurial / Twello (Pays-Bas), Galerie Jacques Sieverding, Wifredo Lam, œuvres historiques, œuvres récentes: peintures, pastels, sculptures, bas-reliefs.
1980
Kessel (Belgique), Galerij Dobbelhoef, Wifredo Lam, dessins de la série, Le Cœur de mon enfance.
Roma, Galleria d’Arte La Borgognona, Wifredo Lam.
Coral Gables (États-Unis), Opus Art Studio INC., Wifredo Lam, lithographs and etchings.
1981
Milan, Galleria Spazio Immagine, Oli, disegni, acquaforti di Wifredo Lam.
Paris, Grand Palais, fiac, Galerie Michel Delorme, Wifredo Lam.
La Havane, Galería Habana, Wifredo Lam, litografías.
1982
Paris, Galerie Arenthon, Wifredo Lam.
New York, Pierre Matisse Gallery, Wifredo Lam, Early Works 1942-1951, Paintings, Gouaches, Watercolors, Drawings.
Milan, Galleria Nuovo Sagittario, Wifredo Lam Opere dal 1945.
Paramaribo (Suriname), Sala Thalia, In Memorian Wifredo Lam.
La Havane, Galería Plaza Vieja, Homenaje a Wifredo Lam en su 80 anniversario, exposición de fotografías.
1982-1983
Madrid, Museo Nacional de Arte Contemporáneo, Homenaje a Wifredo Lam 1902-1982 / Bruxelles, Musée d’Ixelles, Wifredo Lam, 1902-1982 / Paris, Musée d’Art moderne de la Ville de Paris, Wifredo Lam, 1902-1982.
1983
Paris, Librairie L’Arbre Voyageur, présentation de L’herbe sous les pavés de Jean-Dominique Rey.
1984
Milan, Spazio Immagine, Wifredo Lam.
1985
Paris, Galerie Arenthon, Wifredo Lam.
Paris, Grand Palais, fiac, Galerie Fabien Boulakia, Wifredo Lam.
Paris, Galerie Fabien Boulakia, Wifredo Lam.
Cuenca (Espagne), Junta de Communidades de Castilla-La Manche, Wifredo Lam 1925-1927, in homage to Wifredo Lam in Cuenca.
Cracovie (Pologne), Galeria Krzysztofory et Galeria Sztuki Latyno-amerykanskiej, Wifredo Lam 1902-1982.
1985-1986-1987
São Paulo, Pavillion de Cuba (Sala Wifredo Lam), 18a Bienal internacional de São Paolo / Montevideo, Museo Nacional de Artes Plásticas / Buenos Aires, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes / Bogotá, Museo de Arte Moderno, Wifredo Lam / Caracas, Museo de Bellas Artes, Wifredo Lam, pintura y obra gráfica 1938-1976.
1986
Genève, Galerie Éditart, Wifredo Lam.
Buenos Aires, Centoira Galería de Arte, Wifredo Lam.
Prague, Centre culturel Cubain, Wifredo Lam.
Zagreb (Yougoslavie), International Student Friendship Club / Laibach (Yougoslavie), Moderna Galerija, Wifredo Lam.
1987
Paris, Galerie Maeght Lelong, Wifredo Lam, peintures.
Novi Sad (Yougoslavie), Galerija Savremene Likovne Umetnosti, Wifredo Lam, Kuba / Titograd, Galerija Nesvrstanich Zemalja Josip Broz, Susret s Lamom / Skopje, Museum of Contemporary Art, Wifredo Lam.
Zurich, Galerie Maeght Lelong, Wifredo Lam, peintures 1965-1976.
Mexico, Museo Rufino Tamayo, Tres obras maestras de Wifredo Lam.
Paris, Galerie Albert Loeb, Wifredo Lam, dessins, aquarelles, peintures 1938-1950.
1988
Copenhague, Galerie Asbœk, Wifredo Lam.
Paris, Galerie Lelong, Wifredo Lam, pastels.
Paris, Galerie K, Wifredo Lam.
Treviglio (Italie), Galleria Ferrari, Lam.
1988-1989
Düsseldorf, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein Westfalen / Hamburg, Kunstverein, Wifredo Lam.
1989
Buenos Aires, Galería Der Brücke, Wifredo Lam, oleos, pasteles y agua-fuertes.
Paris, Maison de l’Amérique latine, Wifredo Lam, œuvres de Cuba.
1989-1990
La Havane, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Wifredo Lam. Aguafuertes y litografía.
1990
Paris, Galerie Lelong, Wifredo Lam, céramiques.
New York, Galerie Lelong, Wifredo Lam, paintings.
1991
Rome, Istituto Italo-Latino-Americano, Gráfica de Wifredo Lam.
Paris, Galerie Lelong, Wifredo Lam, dessins.
La Havane, Casa de Las Américas, Cuarta Bienal de La Habana, Wifredo Lam desconocido.
La Havane, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Wifredo Lam.
1991-1992
Pekin, Central Institute of Fine Arts / Shanghai, Palace of Fine Arts / Hangzhou, Institute of Fine Arts / Canton, Institute of Fine Arts / Hong Kong, Art Center, Wifredo Lam.
1992
San Juan (Porto Rico), Arsenal de la Puntilla, Wifredo Lam, obras desde 1938 hasta 1975, de regreso al Caribe.
Fort Lauderdale (États-Unis), Carone Gallery, Wifredo Lam, paintings and pastels.
New York, Galerie Lelong, Wifredo Lam, Work on Paper, 1940-75.
La Havane, Teatro Nacional, Grabados de Wifredo Lam.
1992-1993
Mexico, Centro Cultural Arte Contemporáneo / La Havane, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Wifredo Lam, obras sobre papel.
New York, Americas Society, Wifredo Lam: A Retrospective of Works on Paper / Barcelone, Fundació “la Caixa,” Wifredo Lam, obra sobre paper.
Madrid, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía / Barcelone, Fundació Joan Miró, Wifredo Lam.
Rome, Villa Médicis / Milan, Palazzo de La Permanente, Wifredo Lam ou l’Éloge du Métissage.
New York, The Studio Museum in Harlem, Wifredo Lam and his Contemporaries 1938-1952.
1993
Coral Gables (États-Unis), Gary Nader Fine Art, Wifredo Lam: A Tribute.
Stockholm, Nationalmuseum, Wifredo Lam, Grafik.
La Havane, Centro de Arte Contemporáneo Wifredo Lam, Wifredo Lam en la Colección Castillo.
1993-1994
Gravelines (France), Musée du dessin et de l’estampe originale de Gravelines, Wifredo Lam.
1994
Paris, Maison de l’Amérique latine, Wifredo Lam, œuvre gravé et lithographié.
Mendoza (Argentine), Museo Provincial de Bellas Artes “Emiliano Guiñazu”, Casa Fader, Wifredo Lam y la aventura del grabado.
1995
Buenos-Aires / Santiago (Chile), Museo Nacional de BellasArtes, Wifredo Lam, Pasión y Magia sobre Papel.
Madrid, Galería Estiarte, Wifredo Lam, Obra Gráfica.
1996
New York, Galerie Lelong, Wifredo Lam, paintings.
La Havane, Centro de Arte Contemporáneo Wifredo Lam, Wifredo Lam. La seducción del grabado.
2000
La Havane, Biblioteca Nacional José Martí, VII Bienal de La Habana, La Aventura de la creación, Obra sobre papel, 1938-1947.
2001-2002
Paris, Musée Dapper, Lam métis.
La Havane, Centro de Arte Contemporáneo Wifredo Lam, Wifredo Lam. Imágenes desde el grabado.
2002
Fort-de-France (Martinique), Agora, Conseil Régional de La Martinique, Wifredo Lam, Testaments intimes.
Paris, Galerie Thessa Herold, Wifredo Lam, Pastels.
2002-2003
Yokohama (Japon), Yokohama Museum of Art, Wifredo Lam: The Changing Image, Centennial Exhibition.
Milan, Refettorio delle Stelline, Wifredo Lam: un percoso Cuba – Italia.
La Havane, Centro de Arte Contemporáneo Wifredo Lam, Wifredo Lam, de lo circunscrito y lo eterno.
2003
Albissola Marina, Museo Civico di Arte contemporanea, Lam, la ceramica e i totem /Albissola Marina, Galleria del Bostrico, Grafica /Albissola Marina, Circolo degli Artisti, Momenti di vita.
2003-2004
Madrid / La Coruña / Tenerife / Cuenca / Santillana del Mar / Salamanca, Wifredo Lam. Cartografía íntima.
2004
Ségovie (Espagne), Casa de Andrés Laguna, Wifredo Lam.
La Havane, Centro de Arte Contemporáneo Wifredo Lam , Wifredo Lam.
Basse-Terre (Guadeloupe), L’Artchipel / Pointe-à-Pitre (Guadeloupe), Centre des Arts, Wifredo Lam, l’urgence poétique.
Paris, Galerie Boulakia, Wifredo Lam, l’oiseau du possible, œuvres de 1930 à 1978.
New York, Leon Tovar Gallery, Wifredo Lam.
2005
Bogota, Centro Cultural del Convenion Andrés Bello, Wifredo Lam, los años decisivos.
L’Isle-sur-la-Sorgue (France), Musée Campredon, Maison René Char, Lam et les poètes.
2006
Paris, Galerie Thessa Herold, Wifredo Lam, orichas.
Alcalá de Henares (Espagne), Instituto Cervantes / Bruxelles, Institut Cervantes, Wifredo Lam. Cartografía íntima.
Nueva Gerona (Cuba), Centro de Arte Martha Machado, Un viaje por la obra de Wifredo Lam.
Cienfuegos (Cuba), Museo Provincial, El último viaje del buque fantasma.
Valence (Espagne), Museo de Bellas Artes Gravina, Wifredo Lam, El Ojo del tigre.
Gênes (Italie), Raccolte Frugone, Villa Grimaldi Fassio, Wifredo Lam. Cartografia intima (1936-1959).
2007-2008
Milwaukee (États-Unis), The Haggerty Museum of Art / Miami, Miami Art Museum (augmentée) / Long Beach, Museum of Latin American Art / Saint Peterburg (FL), Wifredo Lam in North America.
2008
Miami, Gary Nader Fine Art, Wifredo Lam One Man Show.
Coral Gables, Wifredo Lam : an Homage
2009
Girona, Fundació Caixa Girona, Wifredo Lam, L’esperit de la creació 1939-1976.
2009-2010
Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Cultural Rio de Janeiro / Sao Paolo, Pinacoteca do Estado, Lam: a obra gráfica.
2010
Nantes, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Wifredo Lam, 1902-1982, voyages entre caraïbes et avants-gardes.
2012
St. Moritz, Galerie Gmurzynska, Fire Tongues. Ceramics by Wifredo Lam.
Nouméa, Centre Tjibaou, Dialogues d’outre mer, Résonnances Kanak autour d’Annonciation.
2014
Boston, Boston College, McMullen Museum Presents Wifredo Lam: Imagining New Worlds
2015
Atlanta, High Museum of Art, Wifredo Lam: Imagining New Worlds
Curitiba, Museu Oscar Niemeyer, Wifredo Lam: O Espírito da Criação.
Paris, Centre Pompidou, Wifredo Lam.
2016
Beijing, Millennium Museum, Wifredo Lam and the poets.
Madrid, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Wifredo Lam.
London, TATE MODERN, THE EY EXHIBITION: WIFREDO LAM.
2018
Zurich, Galerie Gmurzynska, WIFREDO LAM: NOUVEAU NOUVEAU MONDE.